The Protocol to the Council of Europe's Convention on Human Rights and Bio-Medicine (The Oviedo Convention ETS no. 164) prohibits "any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead". It rules out any exception to this ban , even in the case of a completely sterile couple.
Only States which have signed the actual Convention can also sign the Protocol. It stipulates that States must provide in their legislation for penalties for offences, such as prohibiting researchers and practitioners from practising, revoking licences for laboratories or clinics, and criminal penalties.
Along with the Convention, certain of whose provisions it supplements, the Protocol enshrines important principles which provide the ethical basis for further biological and medical developments, both now and in the future.